www.engr.wisc.edu/ep College of EngineeringThe University of Wisconsin-Madison
Department of Engineering Physics Nuclear Engineering / Engineering Physics / Engineering Mechanics & Astronautics


Featured Articles

Research gives ligaments a real workout

Two receive NSF CAREER awards

New Engineering Physics faculty

New twists on classic courses — EMA 469/569 and NEEP 412

Student research news

Wendy Crone leads nanoworld education efforts and Art Ellis joins NSF

Regular Features

Message from the chair

EP in the news

Alumni news

In memoriam

Research gives ligaments a real workout

Rod Lakes, Ashish Oza, Eugene Manley, Tim Jaglinski, Bridget Welbes, Rittu Hingorani and Yun-Che Wang

Rod Lakes (left) and student members of his research group, from left: Ashish Oza (ligament), Eugene Manley (ligament), Tim Jaglinski (metal creep), Bridget Welbes (advanced material development), Rittu Hingorani (ligament) and Yun-Che Wang (advanced material development). (13K JPG)

When you're stretching in preparation for a workout, different people will give you varying opinions about whether it is better for your body to hold a steady stretch for a longer period of time or apply a deeper stretch for a shorter period.

"Which is going to be more effective? Which is better? Which will give you the least amount of damage?" asks Roderic Lakes, a professor of engineering mechanics and biomedical engineering.

With colleague Ray Vanderby Jr., an associate professor of surgery, engineering physics, biomedical engineering and mechanical engineering, Lakes is studying the viscoelasticity of ligaments. "Viscoelasticity means that it doesn't spring back right away when you remove a force from it, and if you keep a steady force, it will continue to deform," explains Lakes.

Initially, ligaments stretch easily, but as they stretch they become stiffer and there's a limit to how much stretching they can tolerate, he says. The pair's research group hopes to couple studies of creep (continued stretching during a steady force) with studies of relaxation (a decrease in resistance under a steady stretch deformation) at different load and strain levels.

Scientists have conducted experiments for each of these areas, but have not studied how they are interrelated. Rather, they viewed the time of loading and how much load is applied as separate factors, says Lakes. "They assumed that you can separate those out and write them as multiplied form," he says. "And it turns out, you can't. They're woven together."

An additional benefit from their studies of ligament stretching is that the research also will identify points at which ligaments are damaged. "How much it takes is going to depend on how fast the force is applied," says Lakes. "That is, the threshold for tearing tissue during a slow activity like weightlifting may be different from the threshold for tearing tissue during a sudden bump — say, during a ski run. That may only last a fraction of a second."

With their research, a three-year project funded by the National Science Foundation, the group is forging new experimental and theoretical ground, as well as developing principles they can expand beyond biological materials. "We're hoping that what we're doing on the theoretical side will have relevance to other materials besides ligaments," says Lakes. "For example, the metal in your lawnmower engine or outboard motor engine is hot enough that it'll also stretch out like a tendon. If it stretches out too much, then your engine may fail even before anything's worn out just because things have gotten loose."


EPISODE is published twice a year for alumni and friends of the UW-Madison Department of Engineering Physics.

Send address changes and correspondence to:

Department of Engineering Physics
1500 Engineering Drive
Madison, WI 53706-1687

If you encounter technical problems with this page, notify:


Copyright 2005 The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System
Date last modified: Wednesday, 22-May-2002 17:26:00 CDT
Date created: 22-May-2002